What do you need to know about the coronavirus?
A virus is the simplest form of life without a cellular structure, a fragment of the genetic code.
The virus itself is not viable. Viruses are divided into two groups depending on how they store hereditary information:
RNA (ribonucleic acid) - viruses; DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - viruses.
The structure of viruses
A virus is a DNA or RNA molecule surrounded by a protein coat. In cells, it breaks down into nucleic acid and membranes and they attach to the cell membrane.
From this moment on all processes in the cell are controlled by the genetic information contained in the nucleic acid. The cell synthesizes viral proteins and acids, forms new viruses. After exposure, the cell is destroyed.
A viral infection is characterized by general damage to the body. The incubation period ranges from 1 to 5 days. The defeat begins acutely: the temperature rises to 38 ° C and above, general weakness and intoxication of the whole organism are observed.
The origin of the new coronavirus
Viral infections came to humans from animals. Chinese scientists believe the emergence of a new coronavirus is due to bats and snakes. According to scientists, bats have infected snakes with the coronavirus. In the body of the snakes which have their own virus, the two viruses exchanged regions, resulting in a hybrid that began to infect humans. Later this theory was abandoned.
Other scientists from China isolated the genome of the pangolin coronavirus (a lizard eaten by the Chinese, snakes, bats) and the human coronavirus, found their coincidence by 99%. Pangolins could act as intermediaries and transmit the virus to humans.
Defeat with the classic coronavirus
Coronavirus - a family of viruses, which includes 4 genera, including about 37 species, was first discovered in 1965. The main direction of action is the respiratory system, less often it affects the gastrointestinal tract, very rarely the nervous system.
The classic coronavirus is the causative agent of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI). The disease is predominantly benign. In isolated cases, it initiates severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Simply put, SARS. SARS caused by coronavirus initiates a runny nose and sore throat with moderate fever (chills) and intoxication. With the development of SARS, the most severe damage to the alveolar cells of the lungs is noted and severe respiratory failure is formed.
Defeat with the new coronavirus
The lungs are composed of bronchi and alveoli. The bronchi are the pathways through which air flows. Alveoli are thin-walled cavities that are woven by a network of capillaries and through which blood circulates. Through the alveoli, the incoming air is removed and carbon dioxide is transferred from the blood. The coronavirus disrupts the alveoli and causes SARS. Blood, plasma and other components begin to seep through the affected walls of the alveoli. Oedema of the lungs sets in - the person has nothing to breathe.
A new type of coronavirus causes symptoms similar to those of colds, pneumonia becomes a complication. The immune system does not recognize the new type of human virus. Its membrane has thorns on which there is a protein with hydrocarbons, with the help of which the virus attaches to the cell's receptor. Thus the virus deceives the body's immune system, penetrates into the cell and gives up its RNA. The cell produces new viruses and is destroyed, which leads to general infection.
Treatment Pharmacists are just developing a cure for the new virus. People who have been ill will develop immunity and the next infection is easier. It is possible that the virus mutates, perhaps future drugs will become ineffective or completely useless.
It is impossible to protect the body from microbes - they are everywhere. However, by following simple rules, you can significantly reduce the chances of contracting viruses.
- washing hands with soap and water after visiting public places will help protect against harmful germs;
- caring for nails will prevent them from accumulating;
- regular brushing of teeth with mouthwash will prevent the accumulation of microbes in the mouth;
- intake of vitamins and minerals in the body will increase its immunity: citrus fruits, garlic are recommended;
- the use of animal fats will strengthen the lungs: lard, butter, sour cream;
- the use of oxolinic ointment will prevent the penetration of microbes through the nose, it is recommended to rinse the nasal cavity with saline;
- use a respirator with replaceable filters, remember, a gauze mask is practically useless;
- periodically treat the living space, car interior, bathroom and other frequently visited places with disinfectant solutions.
It is highly discouraged to leave the house unnecessarily during the imposed quarantine. People with weak immunity are in the most dangerous position. However one should not take risks, the situation in the world remains serious and even critical, any rash act can cost lives and possibly the lives of entire nations. Stabilization of the situation in the world depends both on external factors and separately from each person.